张雷



张雷 副研究员


办公地址:北京市海淀区清华大学东主楼9区116

电话:+86-10-7277-2102

Email:zhang.lei@tsinghua.edu.cn


Address:9-116 East Main Building, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

Tel: +86-10-6277-2102

Email:zhang.lei@tsinghua.edu.cn





张雷(Lei Zhang),博士,副教授,博士生导师。2003年毕业于清华大学电子工程系,获工学学士学位;2006年至2008年,在美国加州大学洛杉矶分校(UCLA)联合培养,2008年获工学博士学位。2008年至2010年在UCLA从事博士后工作,IEEE会员,主要研究方向为硅基模拟/射频与毫米波/太赫兹集成电路芯片与系统设计、硅基集成生物芯片技术、类脑集成电路设计与人工智能算法等。主持/参与国家重点研发计划、国家973、863、国家科技重大专项、国家自然科学基金等项目18项。工作曾被选为国家973计划项目重大研究成果。应邀参加国家十二五科技成就展、2019年军博全国科技周暨北京科技周、2019年世界新能源汽车大会等展出。在国际重要学术期刊与会议上发表SCI/EI论文100余篇,他引310余次,Google Scholar引用500余次。研究成果获中国技术市场协会金桥奖一等奖、中国仿真学会科技进步一等奖等国家省部级科技奖励6项,国际会议论文奖2项,发表学术专著4部,专利21项。主要国际学术任职包括IEEE电路与系统协会(CASS)ASPTC专家组成员,IEEE定制集成电路大会(CICC)TPC委员,全国汽车标准化技术委员会智能网联汽车分技术委员会委员,IEEE JSSC、IEEE T-MTT、IEEE T-CAS I/II、IEEE MWCL、IEEE T-VLSI、ISSCC、CICC、ASSCC、ISCAS等国际重要学术期刊与会议的审稿专家。


科研方向:

1、B5G和6G通信硅基毫米波与太赫兹多频阵列芯片与系统

2、硅基毫米波雷达和成像阵列芯片与系统

3、硅基集成生物芯片技术、类脑集成电路设计与人工智能算法


Lei Zhang, graduated with honors from the Department of Electronic Engineering in Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in 2003. During 2006 to 2008, he has been a visiting scholar for the joint degree program in University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), U.S.A, and received his Ph.D. degree in Tsinghua University in 2008. He has been a Postdoctoral Fellow in UCLA from 2008 to 2010. Since 2010, he has been Assistant Professor and subsequently Associate Professor of Institute of Microelectronics in Tsinghua University from 2012. His research interests cover analog and RF/mmW/THz integrated circuits and systems for the Beyond-Fifth-Generation (B5G) and Sixth-Generation (6G) wireless communications and teraherz imaging, fully integrated multi-channel automotive radar, data converters, CMOS integrated microarray biochips for biosensing and biodetections, integrated neuromorphic circuits and systems, and artificial intelligence algorithms. Prof. Zhang is a member of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), a member of analog signal processing technical committee (ASPTC) of IEEE Circuits and System Society (CASS),IEEE CICC TPC member,and a member of National Intelligent Connected Vehicle Standardization Committee of China. He has directed/participated over 18 projects including National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Basic Research Program of China, National High-tech R&D Program of China, NSFC, etc., and published over 100 technical papers with over 310 citations and over 500 Google Scholar citations, co-authored 4 technical books, and held 2 international conference awards, 6 National provincial and ministerial awards of China, and 21 patents.


代表性论文:

SELECTED JOURNAL PAPERS:

(Corresponding Author is marked by *.)

·Liang Chen, Lei Zhang*, Yan Wang, and Zhiping Yu,“A Compact E-Band Power Amplifier with Gain-Boosting and Efficiency Enhancement,”IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 68, no. 11, pp. 4620-4630, Nov. 2020.(SCI, EI)

·Liang Chen, Lei Zhang*, and Yan Wang, “A 26.4 dB Gain 15.82 dBm 77 GHz CMOS Power Amplifier with 15.9% PAE Using Transformer Based Quadrature Coupler Network,”IEEE Microw. Wireless Comp. Lett., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 78-81, Jan. 2020.(SCI, EI)

·Liang Chen, Lei Zhang*, and Yan Wang, “A Monolithic Dual-Band 77/94 GHz Transceiver Front-End with Shared Frequency Multiplier,”IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 177784-177792, Dec. 2019.(SCI, EI)

·Weiping Wu, Lei Zhang*, and Yan Wang, “A PVT-Robust Analog Baseband with DC Offset Cancellation for FMCW Automotive Radar,”IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 43249-43257, Apr. 2019.(SCI, EI)

·Wei Zhu, Lei Zhang, and Yan Wang, “A 10.56-GHz Broadband Transceiver with Integrated T/R Switching via Matching Network Reuse and 0.3–2.1-GHz Baseband in 28-nm CMOS Technology,”IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 2599-2617, Jul. 2019.(SCI, EI)

·Dong Huang, Lei Zhang*, Li Zhang, and Yan Wang, “A 60-GHz, 15-dB Gain Range Digitally Controlled Phase-Inverting VGA with 0-dBm OP1dB and 3° Phase Variation in 65-nm CMOS,”IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 819-821, Sep. 2018.(SCI, EI)

·Jinwen Geng, Lei Zhang*, Cheng Zhu, Lan Dai, Xizeng Shi, and He Qian, “An Oscillator-Based CMOS Magneto-Sensitive Microarray Biochip with On-Chip Inductor Optimization Methodology,”IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 2556-2569, May 2018.(SCI, EI)

·Di Li, Lei Zhang*, Yan Wang, and Zhiping Yu, “Design of mm-wave amplifiers based on over and under neutralization techniques,”Science China Information Science, vol. 61, no. 6, 069404, Jun. 2018.(SCI, EI)

·Di Li, Lei Zhang*, and Yan Wang, “6Gbps 16QAM fully integrated receiver using optimized neutralization technique LNA in 90nm CMOS,”Science China Information Science, vol. 61, no. 6, 069406, Jun. 2018.(SCI, EI)

·Chuan Qin, Lei Zhang*,Chunyuan Zhou, Li Zhang, Yan Wang, and Zhiping Yu,“Dual AC Boosting Compensation Scheme for Multi-Stage Amplifiers,”IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II: Exp. Briefs, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 882-886, Aug. 2017.(SCI, EI)

·Dong Huang, Lei Zhang*, Di Li, Li Zhang, Yan Wang and Zhiping Yu, “A 60 GHz 360° 5-bit Phase Shifter with Constant IL Compensation Followed by a Normal Amplifier with ±1 dB Gain Variation and 0.6dBm OP-1dB,”IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II: Exp. Briefs, vol. 64, no. 12, pp. 1437-1441, Dec. 2017.(SCI, EI)

·Chuan Qin, Lei Zhang*, Li Zhang, Yan Wang, and Zhiping Yu, “A 5.8 GHz Class-AB Power Amplifier with 25.4 dBm Saturation Power and 29.7% PAE,”Science China Information Science, vol. 60, 042403, Apr. 2017.(SCI, EI)

·Cheng Zhu, Lei Zhang*, Jinwen Geng, Xizeng Shi, and He Qian, “A micro-array bio detection system based on a GMR sensor with 50-ppm sensitivity,”Science China Information Science, vol. 60, 082403, Aug. 2017.(SCI, EI)

·Jinwen Geng, Lei Zhang*, Cheng Zhu, and He Qian, “An Oscillator-based CMOS Magneto-Sensitive Biosensor with In-Situ Switched Capacitor Calibration Scheme,”IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 640-642, Aug. 2016.(SCI, EI)

·Lei Zhang*, Jun Luo, Wei Zhu, Li Zhang, Yan Wang, and Zhiping Yu, “A Fully Integrated CMOS 60GHz Transceiver for IEEE802.11ad Applications,”J. Commun. Information Networks, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 45-61, Aug. 2016.(invited paper)

·Jun Luo, Lei Zhang*, Li Zhang, Yan Wang, and Zhiping Yu, “Behavioral Analysis and Optimization of CMOS CML Dividers for Millimeter-Wave Applications,”IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II: Exp. Briefs, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 256-260, Mar. 2015.(SCI, EI)

·Lei Zhang*, Chunyuan Zhou, Hongrui Wang, Yan Wang, He Qian, and Zhiping Yu, “A Fully Integrated 60GHz Four Channel CMOS Receiver with 7GHz Ultra-Wide Bandwidth for IEEE 802.11ad Standard,”China Commun., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1-6, Jun. 2014.(invited paper, SCI)

·Jun Luo,Lei Zhang*, and Yan Wang, “A Distributed De-embedding Solution for CMOS mm-wave On-Wafer Measurements Based-on Double Open-Short Technique,”IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 686-688, Dec. 2013.(SCI, EI)

·Lei Zhang*, Zhijie Chang, Yan Wang, and Zhiping Yu “Current-Reuse Single Miller Feedforward Compensation for Multistage Amplifiers,”IET Electronics Lett., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 94-96, Jan. 2013.(SCI, EI)

·Hongrui Wang, Lei Zhang*, Dongxu Yang, Dajie Zeng, Yan Wang, and Zhiping Yu, “Modeling of Current-Return-Path Effect on Single-Ended Inductor in Millimeter-Wave Regime,”IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 737-739, Jun. 2011.(SCI, EI)

·Hongrui Wang, Lei Zhang*, Li Zhang, Yan Wang, and Zhiping Yu, “Design of 24GHz High Gain Receiver Front-End Utilizing ESD-Split Input Matching Network,”IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II: Exp. Briefs, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 482-486, Aug. 2011.(SCI, EI)

·Chunyuan Zhou, Lei Zhang*, Li Zhang, Yan Wang, Zhiping Yu and He Qian, “Injection-Locking Based Power and Speed Optimization of CML Dividers,”IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II: Exp. Briefs, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 565-569, Sep. 2011.(SCI, EI)

·Lei Zhang*, Qianxi Lai, and Yong Chen, “Configurable Neural Phase Shifter with Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity,”IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 716-718, Jul. 2010.(SCI, EI)

·Qianxi Lai, Lei Zhang, Zhiyong Li, William F. Stickle, R. Stanley Williams, and Yong Chen, “Ionic/Electronic Hybrid Materials Integrated in a Synaptic Transistor with Signal Processing and Learning Functions,”Adv. Mat., vol. 22, pp. 2448-2453, Jun. 2010.(SCI, EI)

·Lei Zhang*, Zhiping Yu, and Xiangqing He, “Design and Implementation of Ultralow Current-Mode Amplifier for Biosensor Applications,”IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 540-544, Jul. 2009.(SCI, EI)

·Qianxi Lai, Lei Zhang, Zhiyong Li, William F. Stickle, R. Stanley Williams, and Yong Chen, “Analog Memory Capacitor Based on Field Configurable Ion-Doped Polymers,”Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 95, no. 21, pp. 213503-1-3, Nov. 2009.(SCI, EI)

·Qianxi Lai, Zhiyong Li, Lei Zhang, Xuema Li, William F. Stickle, Zuhua Zhu, Zhen Gu, Theodore I. Kamins, R. Stanley Williams, and Yong Chen, “An Organic/Si Nanowire Hybrid Field Configurable Transistor,”Nano Lett., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 876-880, Mar. 2008.(SCI, EI)

SELECTED CONFERENCE PAPERS:

(Corresponding Author is marked by *.)

·Weiping Wu, Lei Zhang*, and Yan Wang, “A 20-Gb/S CMOS Cross-Coupled Dual-Feedback Loop Transimpedance Amplifier,”IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst. (ISCAS), Seville, Spain, May 2020.(EI)

·Liang Chen, Lei Zhang*, Weiping Wu, Li Zhang, and Yan Wang, “A Compact 76-81 GHz 3TX/4RX Transceiver for FMCW Radar Applications in 65-nm CMOS Technology,”IEEE Radio-Frequency Integr. Circuits Symp. (RFIC), Boston, MA, U.S.A., Jun. 2019.(EI)

·Liang Chen, Lei Zhang*, Li Zhang, and Yan Wang, “A Compact E-Band PA with 22.37% PAE 14.29 dBm Output Power and 26 dB Power Gain with Efficiency Enhancement at Power Back-off,”IEEE Radio-Frequency Integr. Circuits Symp. (RFIC), Boston, MA, U.S.A., Jun. 2019.(EI)

·Wei Zhu, Wei Lv, Bingbing Liao, Yanping Zhu, Yuefei Dai, Pei Li, Lei Zhang, and Yan Wang, “A 21 to 30-GHz Merged Digital-Controlled High Resolution Phase Shifter-Programmable Gain Amplifier with Orthogonal Phase and Gain Control for 5-G Phase Array Application,”IEEE Radio-Frequency Integr. Circuits Symp. (RFIC), Boston, MA, U.S.A., Jun. 2019.(EI)

·Ji Dong, Lei Zhang*, and Yan Wang, “High Gain Microstrip Array Antenna for Automotive Radar,”IEEE Int. Conf. Electron Devices Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC), Xi’an, China, Jun. 2019.(EI)

·Ji Dong, Lei Zhang*, and Yan Wang, “Reconfigurable Antenna for Automotive Radar System,”IEEE Int. Symp. Antennas Propagation USNC-URSI Radio Science Meeting (APS/URSI), Atlanta, GA, U.S.A., Jul. 2019.(EI)

·Weiping Wu, Lei Zhang*, Li Zhang, Yan Wang, and Zhiping Yu, “An Accurate dB-Linear Programmable-Gain Amplifier with Temperature-Robust Characteristic,”IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst. (ISCAS), Florence, Italy, May 2018.(EI)

·Lei Zhang*, Lin Lin, Xinxin Zhu, and Yan Wang, “A 140GHz Phase-Locked Loop with 14.3% locking range in 65-nm CMOS,”IEEE Int. Conf. Electron Devices Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC), Hsinchu, Taiwan, Oct. 2017.(EI)

·Weiping Wu, Lei Zhang*, Li Zhang, and Yan Wang, “A Temperature-Robust Analog Baseband Chain for Automotive Radar,”IEEE Int. Conf. Electron Devices Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC), Hsinchu, Taiwan, Oct. 2017.(EI)

·Lei Zhang*, Lin Lin, Li Zhang, and Yan Wang, “A 150GHz Amplifier Based on Coupled Transmission Line Neutralization and Inter Stage Impedance Matching with 20dB Gain in 65nm CMOS,”IEEE Int. Conf. Electron Devices Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC), Hsinchu, Taiwan, Oct. 2017.(EI)

·Yuan Chen, Lei Zhang*, Yan Wang and Lin Lin, “A 143GHz Power Amplifier Based on Over Neutralization and Power Combining Technique in 65nm CMOS,”IEEE Int. Conf. Electron Devices Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC), Hsinchu, Taiwan, Oct. 2017.(EI)

·Chuan Qin, Lei Zhang*, Li Zhang, Yan Wang, Zhiping Yu,“An 5-GHz Inductor-Noise Cancelling Receiver with 1.8 dB Noise Figure in 65nm LP CMOS,”IEEE Radio-Frequency Integr. Circuits Symp. (RFIC), San Francisco, CA, U.S.A., May 2016.(EI)

·Dongyang Yan, Lei Zhang*, Li Zhang, and Yan Wang, “A 3.1-4.2GHz Automatic Amplitude Control Loop VCO with Constant KVCO and <10mV Amplitude Variation,”IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst. (ISCAS), Montreal, Canada, May 2016.(EI)

·Jinwen Geng, Lei Zhang*, Cheng Zhu, and He Qian, “An Oscillator-based CMOS Magneto-Sensitive Biosensor with A Low Noise and Low Temperature Coefficient LDO Regulator,”IEEE Int. Conf. Electron Devices Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC), Hong Kong, China, Aug. 2016.(EI)

·XinxinZhu, Lei Zhang*,Yan Wang, and Zhiping Yu, “A 66-to-76GHz E-band QPLL with Amplifier Feedback QVCO in 65-nm CMOS,”IEEE Int. Conf. Electron Devices Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC), Hong Kong, China, Aug. 2016.(EI)

·Jin Qin, Lei Zhang*,Liu Chao, “Metamateral Enhanced Folded Waveguide Slow Wave Structure for Millimeter Wave Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier,”IEEE Int. Conf. Electron Devices Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC), Hong Kong, China, Aug. 2016.(EI)

·Jin Qin, Lei Zhang*,Li Zhang and Yan Wang, “Analysis of Factors In Phase Array Antenna And RF Units On System Performance Of The OFDM PHY Of IEEE 802.11ad Standard,”IEEE Int. Conf. Electron Devices Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC), Hong Kong, China, Aug. 2016.(EI)

·Dongyang Yan, Lei Zhang*, Li Zhang, and Yan Wang, “A Five-Order Butterworth Low-Pass Filter with DC Offset Cancellation for WLAN Applications,”IEEE Int. Conf. Electron Devices Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC), Hong Kong, China, Aug. 2016.(EI)

·Dong Huang, LeiZhang*, Di Li, Li Zhang, and Yan Wang,“A 60GHz 360° Digitally Controlled Phase Shifter with 6-bit Resolution and 2.3° Maximal rms Phase Error in 65nm CMOS Technology,”IEEE Int. Symp. Radio-Frequency Integr. Tech. (RFIT), Sendai, Japan, Aug. 2015.(best paper award, EI)

·Jun Luo, Lei Zhang*, Wei Zhu, Li Zhang, Yan Wang, and Zhiping Yu, “A 64dB Gain 60GHz Receiver with 7.1dB Noise Figure for 802.11ad Applications in 90nm CMOS,”IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst. (ISCAS), Lisbon, Portugal, May 2015.(EI)

·Jun Luo, Lei Zhang*, Li Zhang, Yan Wang and Zhiping Yu, “A 24GHz Low Power and Low Phase Noise PLL Frequency Synthesizer with Constant KVCO for 60GHz Wireless Applications,”IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst. (ISCAS),Lisbon, Portugal, May 2015.(EI)

·Xiaolong Liu, Lei Zhang*, Li Zhang, Yan Wang, and Zhiping Yu, “A 2.15-6.18 GHz Transformer-Based Dual-mode LC-VCO with Current-reuse Technology,”IEEE Int. Conf. Electron Devices Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC), Chengdu, China, Jun. 2014.(EI)

·Zhen Li, Lei Zhang*, Yan Wang, Lingling Sun, Zhiping Yu, “Effects of RF Impairments on EVM Performance of 802.11ac WLAN Transmitters,”IEEE Int. Conf. Electron Devices Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC), Chengdu, China, Jun. 2014.(EI)

·Cheng Zhu, Lei Zhang*, Xizeng Shi, Yunhua Gao, Zhijie Chang, and He Qian, “A GMR Biosensing System with Sub-50ppm Sensitivity,”IEEE Int. Conf. Electron Devices Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC), Chengdu, China, Jun. 2014.(EI)

·Chuan Qin,Lei Zhang*, Dajie Zeng, Yan Wang, and Zhiping Yu, “A Wideband Low Noise Amplifier with Current Reuse and Linearity Enhancement,”IEEE Int. Symp. Circuit Syst. (ISCAS), Beijing, China, May, 2013.(EI)

·Jun Luo, Lei Zhang*, and Yan Wang, “A Unified Model and Direct Extraction Methodologies of Various CPWs for CMOS mm-Wave Applications,”IEEE Custom Integr. Circuits Conf. (CICC), San Jose, California, U.S.A., Sep., 2012.(Intel/Analog Devices/Catalyst Foundation Award, EI)

·Qing Jin, Kaiyuan Yang, Chunyuan Zhou, Dongxu Yang, Lei Zhang, Yan Wang, Zhiping Yu, and Weidong Geng, “A Transformer-based Filtering Technique to Lower LC-Oscillator Phase Noise,”IEEE Int. Symp. Circuit Syst. (ISCAS),Seoul, Korea, May 2012.(EI)

·Lei Zhang*, Xiangqing He, Yan Wang, and Zhiping Yu, “A Fully Integrated CMOS Nanoscale Biosensor Microarray,”IEEE Custom Integr. Circuits Conf. (CICC), San Jose, California, U.S.A., Sep. 2011.(EI)

·Dongsheng Yang, Lei Zhang*, Hongrui Wang, Dajie Zeng, Chunyuan Zhou, Dongxu Yang, and He Qian, “A 24GHz Low Phase Noise Feedback CMOS LC-VCO,”IEEE Int. Conf. Electron Devices Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC), Tianjin, China, Nov.2011.(EI)

·Jun Luo, Lei Zhang*, and Yan Wang, “System-level Design of 60GHz Front-end for Gbps High Speed Wireless Communication,”IEEE Int. Conf. Electron Devices Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC), Tianjin, China, Nov.2011.(EI)

·Hongrui Wang, Lei Zhang, Dongxu Yang, Dajie Zeng, Li Zhang, Yan Wang, and Zhiping Yu, “A 60GHz Wideband Injection-Locked Frequency Divider with Adaptive-Phase-Enhancing Technique,”IEEE Radio Freq. Integr. Circuits (RFIC) Symp., Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A., Jun. 2011.(EI)

·Chunyuan Zhou, Lei Zhang, Li Zhang, Yan Wang, Zhiping Yu, and He Qian, “A 50% Duty Cycle Wide-Locking Range Divide-By-3 Divider Upto 6 GHz,”IEEE Radio Freq. Integr. Circuits (RFIC) Symp., Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A., Jun. 2011.(EI)

·Hongrui Wang, Dajie Zeng, Dongxu Yang, Li Zhang, Lei Zhang, Yan Wang, He Qian, and Zhiping Yu, “A Unified Model for On-chip CPWs with Various Types of Ground Shields,”IEEE Radio Freq. Integr. Circuits (RFIC) Symp., Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A., Jun. 2011.(EI)

·Hongrui Wang, Dajie Zeng, Dongxu Yang, Li Zhang, Lei Zhang, Yan Wang, He Qian, and Zhiping Yu, “Understanding Dynamic Behavior of mm-Wave CML Divider with Injection-Locking Concept,”IEEE Int. Symp. Circuit Syst. (ISCAS),Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, May 2011.(EI)

BOOKS/CHAPTERS:

·Lei Zhang et al., “New Technological Trends for Automotive Radar,”Blue Book of Intelligent Connected Vehicle, Social Science Academic Press, Beijing, 2019.

·Lei Zhang, “Technological Trends for Automotive Radar,”Blue Book of Intelligent Connected Vehicle, Social Science Academic Press, Beijing, 2018.

·Lei Zhang, Cheng Zhu, Jinwen Geng, Xizeng Shi, Yunhua Gao, Zhijie Chang, and He Qian, “Silicon-based Integrated Microarray Biochips for Biosensing and Biodetection Applications,”Biosensors - Micro and Nanoscale Applications, InTech, 2015.

·Lei Zhang, Zhiping Yu and Xiangqing He, “Integrated Biosensor and Interfacing Circuits,”Biosensors, InTech, 2010.