• Major Research Achievements in Recent Years


    The IMETU has won many awards at State and ministry levels in the past years. The main research achievements in recent years are shown as follows:

    Chips developed for the second generation national resident ID card is going to put into application nationally.

The national resident ID card of has amounted more than 1.2 billion since the implementation of resident ID card system in 1984. With the constant development of society and economy, increasingly updating of technical level and more frequently migrating population, old national resident ID card becomes hard to meet the needs of social development. Because it can not be read by machine and is easy to be counterfeited and changed. The State Council approved to adopt technique of contactless IC card which has China's own IP and is produced domestically to develop our second generation national resident ID card in June, 2001. Institute of Microelectronics of Tsinghua University and Tsinghua Tongfang Co., Ltd jointly established Beijing Tsinghua Tongfang Microelectronic Co., Ltd in December, 2001, cooperating to research and develop the chips for the second generation national resident ID card. The chip is specifically used for second generation ID card, which applied contactless, read and write mode using radio frequency communication technique and sea capacity nonvolatile memory. In addition, high intensive authentication algorithm is used for guarantee of security besides, the signal interface, communication protocol and function of chip uniquely conform to relevant specification ,and have compatibility with ISO/IEC 14443TYPE–B standard. The chip has a protection and reliability mechanism protecting important data room losing and voltage from unintentional falling. The project has independently resolved all critical technical problems of modulus of chip. Its performance has reached or overridden the level of the famous product in china and abroad. Besides, in order to be compatible with card use and inspection. Specific radio modulus for compatible read write equipment and tester for measuring second generation card and performance of read-write equipment and protocol have been developed with international advance level .

  • With record generation card starting batch production and providing with products, the government can in time execute the plan of exchanging resident ID according scapulae from 2004.

    The developed product has a stable market and a lot of users. In five years the market demands billion chips. Through developing critical technique and product with independent IP, we promote the production of scientific research products, support important factory to form an economy with a large scale and set up an information industry new growing point. For example, evaluating only chip modulus, the market scale is worth over ten billion yens. In addition there is a bigger market for manufacturing card 、 ID、 Read-write equipment and application system. Through the execution of the project china will become the first big nation in the world. With this result, the execution of the project will create magnificent economic and social benefits.

    Chips for public telephone IC card developed in Tsinghua has been rewarded the Second Class of Prize for National Science and Technology Development.

    Through the industrialization efforts made by DaTang Microelectronics Technology Co., Ltd, the special chips for public telephone IC card, which was developed by Institute of Microelectronics of Tsinghua University, has been put in production on a large scale for the domestic IC enterprises. This IC card is currently the only domestic one, which has gained the network license from China Telecom and can be volume-applied domestically. Now the sales volume of this card has exceeded more than hundreds of million and has been exported to Europe for the first time. This achievement has been awarded the First Class of Prize for Beijing 's Science and Technology Development in 2001, and the Second Class of Prize for National Science and Technology Development in 2002.


    Smart card IC, which utilizes flash as memory, achieved the golden award of patent in China.

    The SIM card chips designed for GSM cell phones, successfully developed by DaTang Microelectronics Technology Co., Ltd and Institute of Microelectronics of Tsinghua University jointly, is the first one which has independent intellectual property (IP) right domestically. It has broken foreign products' monopoly in this field, and has been widely applied in the wireless telecommunication and mobile phone products in our country.


    New type micro-nano electronics devices 、 system and packaging technology :

    As the progress of microelectronics, devices are getting smaller and smaller. Miniaturization has pushed the dimensions of microelectronic devices into nanometer regime. At this length scale, devices cannot operate in the same way as before and quantum effects become dominant. We need to develop new devices to meet the ever-growing demand for information process. Quantum computer is a new type of system based on quantum mechanics. It is believed that quantum computers will be much faster and be able to solve problems not possible with classical computers. Scalability is one of the most important requirements for information processing systems. Superconducting quantum computation is the most promising method to be scalable. Necessary equipments for the fabrication of superconducting devices have been purchased and installed. And the required low temperature environment for the superconducting device measurement will be provided by a newly installed dilution refrigerator system.

    Under the support of the national 973 program, IMETU had make many progresses on the quantum based nano-electronics modeling, current leakage analysis on 65nm node chip, double gates MOS devices and compound semiconductor devices, and strained silicon mobility simulation.

     Microactuators device:Taking the lead in developing manifold new type of MEMS device. It include a micro-silicon Electrostatic motor ,its highest rotate speed is 14,000 r/min and controlled by closed loop in chip;A silicon integrated micro-pump with sensors and control circuits.

    Microsensors:Some new type sensors and MEMS peg-top components are successfully developed,including integrated MOS stress-sensitive OP pressure transducers、integrated accelerometer using ring oscillators and room temperature infrared sensors;Micro-silicon rotameter used for measuring weak fluid;Minisize magnetic sensors are developed and produced by batch.

     A series of RF-MEMS with novel structures and high performance parameters have been developed, including RF-MEMS switch, filter, intelligent antenna, transmission line, changeable capacitance and inductance, which have great potential value in application and industrialization.

    National 863 project “Sensor system for tire pressure and collision warning in automobile” has passed the mid-term evaluation by the Experts Committee. Completed structure and circuit design and modeling. Established key fabrication process. Completed design of key components, power resumption chip and made integrated transducer sample used for tire pressure monitoring. Completed design and modeling of mini ultrasound sensor, solved problems in fabrication and fabricated samples of environment friendly ultrasound sensor for collision warning.

    Biomedical and micro fluidic device: Studied micro bio-sensor chip for protein and disease sensing. Achieved digital control of blood and other body fluid with the chip. Investigated optimized design and fabrication method for micro suspended beam, demonstrated micro sensors with length, width and height of 100um, 20um and 1um respectively. By using self assembly diagnosing protein molecules have been fixed on the detector surface and achieved detection of immune protein with sensitivity of 0.2ug/ml.

    Initiated research on spintronics and developed uniform large area silicon based magneto materials (e.g. GMR>14%, CMR structure with electric induced resistivity change >100% and high quality GMR magnetic transducer, sensitivity>1.5mV/Voe, linear response region±20Oe).

    Micro energy device: Demonstrated silicon based Methanol micro-fuel cell (mDMFC), including two parallel mDMFC cells. Open circuit voltage is 0.47V at room temperature, maximum power density is 12.71 mW/cm2, an increase of 39.3% compared with single cells with same surface area and the total volume only increased by 23%;Demonstrated mDMFC with micro-structured anodes which improved fuel flow hence efficiency. Open circuit voltage is 0.45V at room temperature, maximum power density is 8.08 mW/cm2 compared to 3.87mW/cm2 for nominally same devices without microstructures.

    In the research area of new interconnection in advanced packaging, developed many bump formation processes for inverse bonding; demonstrated lead-free 100m high pure Tin bumps with 200?m pitch by using electroplating technique. And investigated their microstructure, strength and assembly reliability of the process. Developed technique to make lead-free bumps using masked printing, demonstrated 100?m high Sn-Ag-Cu bumps with 250m pitch; Developed low temperature packaging process with conductive polymer and demonstrated packaging of temperature sensitive CZT sensors.

    Developed CMOS compatible 3-D interconnection process using electroplating to fill through-holes from bottom, achieved 3-D copper interconnection with 10:1 aspect ratio, connection diameter 20m, pitch 50m,and density over 10000/cm2。This technique enables one to achieve 3-D vertical connection, temporary bonding, thinning and bump bonding.

    At system level packaging, completed system design of different Cu-Sn、Au-Sn and Ag-Sn bonding systems and developed wafer bonding process. Initiated design and implementation for different system integration requirements, including modeling of heat dissipation for power supply unit, packaging design for power LED and passive components

    Studied material selection, structure design, process and transportation to reduce internal stress in packaging process for high reliability devices and developed relevant design rules, most of them are adapted by production lines and achieved good results. Analyzed failure mechanism of devices using ultrasound scanning for different solder layers.


    Research on IC Processing Technology 、 material and characteristic circuits:

    First 1m VLSI processing line in the country was established in 1989. First 1Mb Chinese Character ROM was developed and fabricated in China through top-down design. There are 1.06 million transistors on the ROM chip. The technology was transferred to Huajing Group Cooperation, showing that the 1μm processing technology had reached mass product-manufacturing level. This achievement symbolized that the microelectronics technology had reached VLSI level in China.

    A Rapid Thermal UHV/CVD Epitaxy System using infrared heating technology for VLSI was studied and fabricated. The system has obtained both China and the U.S. patents. A second-class award of National Invention is conferred on the system. The system has been used in companies and institutes widely in China.

    Industrialization project for the SiGe based Products was checked and accepted in January, 2008. UHV/CVD epitaxial system has been developed for growing SiGe layers. The fabricated SiGe HBTs include a power device with fT >8GHz, and a low noise small signal HBT with fT >12.5GHz. The development of power HBT gained the Scientific Progress Award (3rd Prize) of Ministry of Information Industry. In 2004, processes for self-aligned polysilicon and Ti silicide was developed, a large dynamic range HBT with Pcm=200mW was fabricated.In 2005, IMETU and the CEC Huaqing company work together to apply a project, -producing of high performance SiGe based microwave devices and ICs sponsored by National Development and Reform Commission. The project has been carried out in 2006-2007, and finished in the end of 2007. Achievements were checked and accepted in January, 2008. When the project started in January 2007, the equipment and technology for growing SiGe epitaxial layers was ready, also some prototype SiGe HBT device samples were obtained with self-developed techniques. More production machines, especially some microwave measurement instruments, were reinforced during the project period. Further, unit process technologies such as selective SiGe epitaxial, DTI, double metal process, were developed. With all these improvements in facilities and technologies, our SiGe devices/ICs has been promoted form prototype phase to production phase. The SiGe HBT ft frequency has been successfully increased from the original 5-6GHz to 20GHz. Now the production capacity for SiGe devices/ICs is 1000 wafers per month. By the end of 2007, totally over 10 Million SiGe HBTs has been produced, of which 8 Million HBTs has been sold to market.

     A 0.18m embedded SONOS Flash Memory technology and a 4 Mb eSONOS IP core were successfully developed and passed the final check in 2005, which has our own IP and features with low program voltage, high reliability, small cell size, simple process and highly compatible process with CMOS. The tested results show that the IP core chip has a chip size of 2.4 times 2.0mm2 and read speed smaller than 40ns under 1.8V/3.3V supply voltage. The technology and the IP core can be widely utilized for the SIM card, MCU controller, mobile terminal unit, PC BIOS, and some other products.

    The process criterion, process flow and characterization standard for large diameter SiGe/Si epitaxial material has been developed based on an RTP/UHV-CVD system with independent intellectual property rights. The grown process has been researched and high quality 8-inch SiGe/Si epitaxial  material has been fabricated. The project passed the final check in 2006.

    Strained silicon has been widely used in CMOS technology beyond 90nm node for the purpose of channel mobility enhancement. Funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), the strained silicon material and MOSFETs have been developed. Compared with bulk silicon, the electron and hole mobility in strained silicon are enhanced about 80% and 50% for n-MOSFET and p-MOSFET, respectively. Further R&D on strained silicon will be focused on technique improvement for industrialization.


    VLSI Design and ASIC Product Development:

    1K SRAM, 4K SRAM, 16K SRAM, 2K EEPROM, 1M Chinese Character Mask ROM was successfully studied and fabricated since 1981. And since 1983, an 8 bit MPU C8085A, a 16 bit MPU C8086, a 16 bit MPU C8088, a design of 32 bit RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) microprocessor of SPARC like structure, an 8 bit RISC single chip controller MCU-MC16CR57, and an 8 bit embedded CPU Cores TH68HC05 and TH80C51 have been studies and fabricated. A high performance 32-bit embedded microprocessor has been developed.

    The design of 0.5 and 0.35m standard CMOS technology standard cell library has been completed. The library has more than 300 library cells and about 100 I/O cells. Simulation circuit, cell symbols and synthesized cell symbols are completed. Complete technical documentation and user manual of 0.5m standard cell library have been finished. These works will offer the best developing tools for IC designers in China.

    The project Zhong Xing Microelectronics Corporation ZXM IC Research and Development Center has been completed by Tsinghua University and ZXM had passed an acceptance exanimation by the specialist panel organized by Beijing Government. The center has set up an advanced IC design EDA platform with an E5500 high level server as a center. In the result, it is possible that university scientific research advantage can be combined with the strong market function of enterprise in order to provide basic condition for accelerating developing IC.

    Successfully developed SoC oriented deep submicron SRAM IP core with independent intellectual property right. It is successfully taped-out in SMIC 0.18m standard CMOS process. The test result shows the function is correct, performance reaches the designing requirement. The SRAM compiler can generated various SRAM IP core with capability from 32 bits to 1M bits, which reach and lead competence at home and have good application prospects

    The project ‘IP protection system based on watermarking techniques’ passed the evaluation and check organized by Beijing City Government in 2007, which is a branch of the science and technology plan of Beijing City Government ‘Research on key techniques of SoC design service’. The project developed an IP trade platform composed of an encryption and decryption system and a digital watermark system, provided a whole set of software solution of message extracting of digital signature and digital watermark and secure transmission, provided complete service and technique support for establishment and application of IP library, and accomplished independent IP protection standard, digital signature standard and digital watermark standard. The feedback and monitor function of this IP protection system can provide information service for foundries and promote IP trade and circulation.

    TUIME has taken the lead in developing security logic IC card chip. The first card of this kind, which was with independent intellectual property right and was needed urgently by Chinese “Gold Cards Project”, was developed in 1995. Various kinds of contact-less IC cards also have been successfully developed. This kind of chip not only can be applied in aspects as entrance guard for identity verification, public security and attendance record etc., but also can be used in the charge administrative system of the limited range, even can be expand to public transit, subway, ferry, exhibition, park ticket system, etc. If special packaging technology is adopted, the chip also can be used in the fields, such as electronic label and anti-counterfeit, etc. It is the reliable carrier replacing bar code under the frame of unifying of e-commerce, realizing the integration of goods flowing, melt flowing and information flow. The chips’ low price and wide application range brings very strong market competitiveness. Now it has accumulated and formed enormous quantities supplying ability in domestic IC enterprises.

     “The D/A IP core development” sub project of “IP cores development based on SMIC technology”. In this project, a 20-bit word length, 48KHz signal bandwidth,D/A conversion IP core is design, fabricated in SMIC 0.13um CMOS technology. The measurement results showed that it can achieve 97dB dynamic range across the frequency range of the audio signal, and this IP core can be used in high precision audio signal processing systems.

    The second-generation contactless read-write IC cards, with the international up-to-date technology FeRAM, have been fabricated with authentication & security mechanism on chip. In term of high speed, low power consumption, long live, FeRAM is better than EEPROM. The card can be used for the second generation ID card, pubic transportation and multifunction card: ‘All In One’.

    The Ultra-small and Ultra-thin RFID Tag IC project from Beijing Municipal Government will finish in 2008. RFID Tag IC is developed according to IEC/ISO18000-6B/C standard. Data encryption algorithm is also integrated in the chip. On-chip-antenna is used to lower down the cost of RFID Tag, which is suitable for e-ticket application. Multi-protocol RFID reader and conformance test equipment are also developed.

    A high performance VLSI of the elliptic curve cryptosystems based on the elliptic curve K-233 in the field GF(2233), THECC/233-100, is presented. It is an ECC chip which is independently designed by IMETU with independent IP using the 0.18 um CMOS standard cell library and was taped out in successfully in SMIC in one time. It can perform all four computational functionalities: the digital signature generation and verification, the curve’s point-multiplication and the public-secret key-pair generation needed by ECDSA protocol. The chip has been successfully designed and fabricated with Shanghai SMIC 0.18um CMOS technology. Its scale is about 122K equivalent gates with the area of 2.34 times 2.34mm2. Test shows that it works properly at the frequency no less than 100 MHz. The chip can reach a very high performance by carrying out more than 4000 digital signature generations per second with the key size of 231 bits, which means even stronger encryption than 2048 bit RSA, which is the fastest hardware implementation of ECC in the field GF(2233) according to the known publications till now.

    A high speed RSA cryptography chip has been designed.

    It's technical specification as follows:

    ( a ) 1024 bit RSA digital signature 6000times/second (CRT),

    2000 times/second (Non CRT)

    ( b ) 1024 bit RSA special public key authentication

    from 80,000 times/second to 210,000 times/second (3,5,17,257, 65537)

    ( c ) The frequency for RSA chip 193 ~ 201MHz

    ( d ) power 3W/200MHZ

    ( e ) package QFP 160 Pin

    The latest still image compression standard JPEG2000 adopts Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Embedded Block Coding with Optimized Truncation (EBCOT), which is more advanced in coding efficiency and compressed image performance than the traditional standard, such as JPEG. JPEG2000 will out of question become the leading still image compression method in the near future. Therefore, it is very crucial to research how to implement the JPEG2000 algorithm into silicon. This project deeply studied the VLSI implementations of DWT and EBCOT, and successfully designed the wavelet transform chip, namely THSCLA, and JPEG2000 encoder, namely THJ2K. TH2JK can be used to compress any images in arbitrary resolution with arbitrary ratios into a strict JPEG2000 stream and the corresponding code rate can be controlled conveniently and accurately. THJ2K can be embedded into the high resolution digital surveillance system, digital still camera, digital camera and video conference etc.

    The key project “Ddiver and module for OLED color display”has been completed by Institute of Microelectronics Tsinghua University with Beiling Visionox Company and passed the technical qualification presided by Ministry of Information in April.2007. Compared with LCD display, OLED has a lot of advantages as follows: Light weight; wide viewing angle; ultra thin panel and module; quick response time; self light emitting; energy efficient; flexible display; competitive cost-effectiveness; operational under low temperature ;nicer aseismatic performance. OLED is emerging as the next generation mainstream FPD. controller/driver for OLED display is a mixed signal, high voltage and low power consume integrated circuit .